środa, 31 grudnia 2014

Planes and axes of the human body

It is undoubtedly worthwhile to start learning anatomy with reading about planes and axes of the human body. These issues are indispensable for the understanding of the muscular movements in the torso and the limbs. These terms are also vital in describing location of the body parts, especially the organs.  Analysing exercises will be useful in understanding these issues.

Both planes and axes are used in the reference to the standard anatomical position.

Standard anatomical position  

         the body is situated with the face to the front

         the arms hang loosely along the torse

         the hands are turned outward

         the feet together

       Planes of the body

Human body is divided by three planes:

          the sagittal plane divides the body into left and right portions.

         the midsagittal or median plane is in the midline; i.e. it would pass through midline structures such as the navel or spine, and all other sagittal planes (also referred to as parasagittal planes) are parallel to it.

    the coronal or frontal plane divides the body into back and front portions.

Axes of the body

x - transverse axis, from left to right
y - vertical axis from top to bottom 
z - saggital axis, from front to back

Understanding these issues will be helpful in reading the next article about movements in joints.


Photos derived from:


Atlas treningu siłowego Frederic Delavier

                                                                            MA Rafał Bytomski
                                                              MA Anna Spalik-Bytomska